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The Bibliography

The bibliography must include all material, primary and secondary, that has been cited in the footnotes or has substantially informed the dissertation; it should not include materials consulted that have not, in the end, been used.  It should normally be divided into manuscript sources, printed sources, printed secondary works, unpublished dissertations, and websites.

Bibliographies should be divided into these sections, as applicable:

Primary manuscript sources [manuscripts from the period studied]

Primary printed sources [printed editions of sources from the period studied]

Secondary sources [works by historians or others, subsequent to period studied]

In all these sections, items are listed in alphabetical order. In the case of printed sources, this is done by the first or only author’s surname. In the case of works without an author, it is done by title, but these are in the same alphabetical listing.

Put a full stop at the end of every bibliographical entry.

The bibliography must include all material, primary and secondary, that has been cited in the footnotes or has substantially informed the dissertation; it should not include materials consulted that have not, in the end, been used.  It should normally be divided into manuscript sources, printed sources, printed seconary works, unpublished dissertations, and websites.

Each item should be described as follows:

Manuscripts

  • City in which archive is to be found
  • Full name of archive
  • Reference according to the practice of the relevant archive

Printed primary sources

Examples:

Source published as a whole book

Stephanus, Vita sancti Wilfridi, ed. B. Colgrave (Cambridge, 1927)

Source published as part of a book or as part of a volume of a journal (for which you should provide details of pages containing the entire source)

Roger of Salerno, Chirurgia, ed. K. Sudhoff, Studien zur Geschichte der Medizin 12 (1918), 148-236

Source published as an entire volume of a series (in the example given below, the volume forms part of a sub-series (Epistulae) of the series known as the Monumenta Germaniae Historica)

Alcuin, Epistolae, ed. E. Dümmler, Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Epistulae, 4 (Hannover, 1895)

Source published as part of a volume which is itself part of a series (in the example given, the volume forms part of a three-volume edition of the complete works of Amalarius, which is itself part of the series known as Studi e testi)

Amalarius of Metz, Liber officialis, ed. J.M. Hanssens, Amalarii episcopi opera, Studi e testi, 138-40 (3 vols., Rome, 1948), II, 3-543

Printed works

Books

  1. author’s or editor’s surname
  2. author’s or editor’s initials or forename (for editor(s) add ‘(ed.)’ or ‘(eds)’)
  3. the title, in italics or d
  4. the series, if any, not d
  5. the edition (if not the first)
  6. the number of volumes, publication place and date, punctuated as follows: Carter, P., Frognal to Englands Lane (London Street Name Series, vol.45. London, 1938)
  7. Hazel, J.A., The growth of the cotton trade in Lancashire (2nd edn. 4 vols. London, 1956-

Chapters in edited books

  1. author’s surname
  2. author’s initials or forenames
  3. name of chapter, in single inverted commas, not d
  4. the word ‘in’ followed by the initials/forenames and surname of the editor(s) and ‘ed.’ or ‘eds.’ in brackets
  5. the title of the book, in italics or d
  6. the number of volumes (if more than one), publication place and date published as above
  7. volume number (if relevant) and page numbers of the chapter, punctuated as follows: Kelly, S., ‘Anglo-Saxon lay society and the written word’, in R. McKitterick (ed.), The uses of literacy in medieval Europe (Cambridge, 1990), pp. 36-62

Articles

  1. author’s surname
  2. author’s initials or forenames
  3. name of article, in single inverted commas, not d
  4. name of journal, in italics or d
  5. volume number in Roman or Arabic numerals (‘vol.’ not needed)
  6. date in brackets
  7. page number(s) (‘p’, ‘pp.’ not needed in the case of multi-volume works) punctuated as follows:
  8. Carr, J.L., ‘Uncertainty and monetary theory’, Economics, II (1956), 82-9.

Unpublished dissertations

Put the title in inverted commas and add University and date.

Punctuate as follows:

Other, A.N., ‘The breeding of caveys for food in sixteenth century Peru’ (unpublished PhD. thesis, University of Cambridge, 1962).

Be careful to standardise your use of punctuation marks.